1 "Gumbo" (Beginnings to 1917)
traces the roots of jazz from the 1800s to 1917. The viewer will
catch glimpses of Jelly Roll Morton, who erroneously claimed to
have invented jazz, and the tragic, though influential, figure
of trumpeter Buddy Bolden.
2 "The Gift" (1917-1924)
can one explain the genius of a Louis Armstrong or Duke Ellington?
Blessed with skill and talent far exceeding their peers, one can
only define what they possess as a gift from the gods. These early
portraits are imperative, because both figures have been so canonized
that it is easy to forget the significance of their gifts.
3 "Our Language" (1924-1928)
characters like the tragic Bix Beiderbecke, powerhouse Bessie
Smith, and the braggart Jelly Roll Morton, make the study of jazz
fascinating. Perhaps most touching in this episode is the extended
portrait of the troubled, white cornet player, Bix Beiderbecke,
whose family disapproved of his chosen profession, and who would
never be allowed to record with greats like Louis Armstrong due
to segregation in the music business.
4 "The True Welcome" (1929-1935)
True Welcome" continues many of the stories begun in Episode
3, following several troubling years for Louis Armstrong (who
was arrested for marijuana possession), Duke Ellington’s growth
as a composer, and Benny Goodman discovering gold in Fletcher
Henderson’s arrangements. "The True Welcome" also has
a nice section on rich kid John Hammond, Sr. who would become
one of jazz’ biggest promoters
5 "Swing: Pure Pleasure" (1935-1937)
was the year that swing became the most popular music in the country
and that the king of swing, Benny Goodman, became a matinee idol.
Americans, stifled by the Depression, seemed determined to dance
their troubles away. "Swing: Pure Pleasure" follows
the continuing careers of Goodman, Artie Shaw, and Armstrong,
and the discovery of Billy Holiday.
6 "Swing: The Velocity of Celebration" (1937—1939)
would be reacquainted with its blues roots by way of Kansas City,
when Count Basie and the Barons of Rhythm brought their hot sound
to the Big Apple. Basie would also give Billie Holiday her first
break, offering her a chance to travel, perform, drink, and gamble
with the rest of the band. Another young singer named Ella Fitzgerald
would get her start in Chick Webb’s band at the Savoy Ballroom,
and then be named top female vocalist—over Billy Holiday—by Down
Beat in 1937.
7 "Dedicated to Chaos" (1940—1945)
to Chaos" finds jazz musicians teetering on the brink of
the modern era, fighting against the straightjacket of clichéd,
big band arrangements. The revolution started at Minton’s Playhouse,
a rundown club where musicians like Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie,
and Charlie Christian jammed on Monday nights. When they hooked
up with a young saxophone player from Kansas City named Charlie
Parker, the bop insurgency had arrived.
8 "Risk" (1945—1955)
bop revolution’s influence would spread to other musicians, but
unlike swing, it would never become a popular music. The rapid-fire
solos and complicated chord structures made bop a musician’s music,
unfit for dancing. Indeed, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie’s
music even alienated established musicians like Armstrong. "Risk"
provides an in-depth biography of the bright, brief life of Parker,
and includes interviews with his former wife.
9 "The Adventure" (1956—1960)
who had believed that Charlie Parker was "too much"
musically, could not have welcomed the arrival of Ornette Coleman.
Coleman and John Coltrane would edge jazz toward even more freedom,
eventually dropping all traditional structures. While these artists
alienated many listeners, Miles Davis would record the most popular
jazz album of all time, Kind of Blue.
10 "A Masterpiece by Midnight" (1961—The Present)
Ken Burns knows that he can’t fit the last thirty-nine years of
jazz history onto two hours of video tape, so from the outset,
that shouldn’t be expected. There’s an excellent biography of
John Coltrane, and footage of Miles Davis’ wonderful mid-‘60s
quintet. There is also a nice, small section on the magnificent
Ronnie D. Lankford Jr.